|Title:||Gender and Trade, University of Adelaide|
|Lead Researcher:||Prof Tabitha Kiriti Ng'ang'a|
Development of a Short Course on Gender and Trade training module and facilitation of the same at the Trade Law Centre at the
University of Cape Town on November 18-21, 2012 and July 30, 2012 to August 2, 2012.
|Title:||MAINSREAMING GENDER IN POLICIES & PROGRAMMES|
|Lead Researcher:||Prof Wanjiku Mukabi Kabira|
Training of the Kenya National Assembly Junior Legislative Fellows on August 30, 2012
|Title:||Gender analysis of the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative ((IDDRSI)) and Regional Programming Paper ((RPP)|
Prof. Wanjiku Mukabi Kabira
The devastating drought of 2010/2011 that hit the member countries of the Intergovernmental
Authority on Development (IGAD) prompted the East African Heads of State and
Government to convene a Summit to address the effects of recurring droughts on vulnerable
communities in the Region in a holistic and sustainable manner.
The Summit was held in Nairobi, Kenya on September 9, 2011 and assigned the IGAD
Secretariat the role of leading and coordinating related activities. This led to the development
of the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI) Strategy, the
Regional Programming Paper (RPP) and the Country Programming Papers (CPPs).
The IGAD Secretariat considered the importance of gender mainstreaming and women‟s
empowerment in the IDDRSI Strategy, RPP and CPPs as critical in promoting gender
equality, in ensuring efficient utilization of resources and in building sustainable resilience of
communities and households of the IGAD Region. Subsequently, a consultant was
commissioned to carry out gender analysis of these programme documents with specific
objectives to: Examine gender inequalities in access, participation and benefits in all IDDRSI
priority intervention areas (PIAs) both at regional and national levels; Examine how
existing/proposed IDDRSI interventions, including implementation mechanisms, impact on
women and men; and Propose requisite measures to address the identified gender inequalities
in IDDRSI through implementation both at regional and national levels.
This Report is the first of two reports in response to the task assigned to the gender analysis
consultant by the IGAD Secretariat. It comprises four chapters: Chapter 1 is on the
background of the assignment. Chapter 2 presents the gender analysis of the IDDRSI
Strategy; Chapter 3 offers a gender analysis of the RPP while Chapter 4 presents general
overview, conclusions and recommendations.
The second Report (presented separately) provides gender analysis of the IGAD Member
The methodology used was based on traditional gender analysis frameworks and identified
key relevant questions on the priority intervention areas (PIAs) that have come up through
various studies. The consultant also took into consideration the past documented experiences
on key gender issues that have been of concern in the region.
The findings of the study show that in both the IDDRSI Strategy and the RPP there is limited
appreciation of the importance of gender equality in the design of the programmes. Some
examples of appreciation of gender of the IDDRSI Strategy include: Priority Intervention
Area (PIA) 3 (7-Support women involvement, participation and representation in decision
making on livelihoods support and provision of basic social services); PIA 1 (7- Ensure
gender equity and women empowerment in planning and management of natural resources);
and PIA 6 (8- Ensure equitable gender involvement and participation in conflict prevention,
resolution and peace building). These PIAs mainstream and provide for gender equality and
human rights-based approaches in livelihoods support and access to basic social services. On
the other hand, the section which provides the background, context, purposes and key
features of RPP, does not present any gender disaggregated data and information which
makes it difficult to address gender issues in the rest of the RPP.
Conspicuously absent in both the IDDRSI Strategy and RPP is the lack of gender
disaggregated data in the all sections of the programme documents.
Summary of key findings
i. The study shows that both IDDRSI strategy and RPP have some appreciation of the
importance gender mainstreaming and promoting women‟s empowerment can do in ensuring
successful implementation of drought disaster resilience sustainability initiative but this
awareness is not followed through with specific strategies, budget allocation, development of
gender aware indicators, targets, etc.
ii. The absence of gender disaggregated information is apparent in both IDDRSI Strategy and
RPP. On the whole, critical issues that would ensure gender mainstreaming in the strategy
are absent. However in a few areas the issues are raised but they fall short of being
mainstreamed in the general framework and programming paper.
iii. The background and context to the proposed strategy and programming paper and their
common results framework do not capture the historical and existing gender gaps specific to
men and women. It does not highlight the specific challenges that women and men have been
facing in the IGAD region and the root causes for these challenges. This is the same in all
iv. Critical policies and frameworks such as the IGAD Gender policy, the AU Gender Policy,
the gender affairs programme, among other frameworks that promote gender equality and
women‟s empowerment are not identified as important for RPP and IDDRSI.
v. The Report points out that there are many missed opportunities in both the IDDRSI Strategy
and the RPP that would have ensured mainstreaming gender and women‟s empowerment.
|Title:||GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE COUNTRY PROGRAMMING PAPERS ((CPPs)) To End Drought Emergenciies iin the Horn of Africa|
Prof. Wanjiku Mukabi Kabira
Introduction and context -Following the severe drought that devastated the Horn of Africa in
2010/2011, the East African Heads of States and Governments convened a summit in Nairobi on
9th September 2011 that took the decision to end drought emergencies by addressing the effects of
recurring droughts on vulnerable communities in a holistic and sustainable manner. The Nairobi
Summit assigned the IGAD Secretariat the role of implementing that decision leading to the
development of the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI),
the Regional Programming Paper (RPP) and the Country Programming Papers (CPPs). The
IGAD Secretariat considered the importance of gender mainstreaming and women‟s
empowerment in the IDDRSI strategy, RPP and CPPs as critical towards promoting gender
equality, ensuring efficient utilization of resources in addressing the deep-seated poverty,
environmental degradation, the effects of the devastating drought in the region and in building
sustainable resilience of communities and households of the IGAD region and thus commissioned
a consultant to carry out gender analysis of these programme documents.
The objectives of the task were to: Examine gender inequalities in access to, participation and
benefits from all IDDRSI Priority Intervention Areas (PIAs) both at regional and national levels;
examine how existing/proposed IDDRSI interventions, including implementation mechanisms
impact on women and men; and propose requisite measures to address the identified gender
inequalities in IDDRSI through implementation both at regional and national levels.
Methodology – The study builds on traditional gender analysis frameworks and identifies key
issues of concern, namely: women‟s representation in decision making structures; affirmative
action; women‟s economic, legal and social empowerment; access to and control of resources of
production; gender division of labour; practical and strategic gender needs and interests of men
and women; and the critical issue of gender disaggregated information. The study identifies tools
of analysis, such as: Gender Disaggregated Data; Participation and Decision-Making; Access to
and Control of Resources; Gender Aware Budgeting; Women‟s Empowerment; Gender Sensitive
Policy Formulation; Planning and Programming; Involvement of Women‟s Organizations and
Networks; Research and Knowledge Generation, Gender Aware Monitoring and Evaluation
Tools; and Increased Income for women.
i. There is a lack of comprehensive gender aware programming and implementation
framework in all the CPPs.
ii. Although elaborate institutional frameworks for gender mainstreaming and
promoting women’s empowerment have been established in all member states, none of
the CPPs has mentioned them or has included them in the implementation framework.
Yet, the mandate of these institutions is to ensure gender mainstreaming in all
programmes and to promote women‟s empowerment at all levels.
iii. The CPPs are not aware of national gender policies and make no reference to the same.
iv. In almost all cases, there is no evidence of gender disaggregated data informing the
programming. The CPPs have not taken on board gender aware monitoring and
evaluation or gender aware data collection and analysis.
v. The analysis also shows little awareness of the women‟s low status and lack of their
participation in decision making.
vi. The monitoring and evaluation sections seem